Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Module 6: Learning in a Digital World

Module 6 – Blog Post Discussion

What is your philosophy of learning?
My approach to learning is the constructivism theory of learning. Driscoll (2005) emphasizes that the constructivist learning is when students actively engage in using problem-solving and their critical-thinking skills (p. 387). Students construct their own knowledge by testing ideas, using their creativity, and use of their prior knowledge. The learning is relevant and relative to their real life situations. For example, students’ cultural and socio-economic background, their values, beliefs, motivation, and their expectations increase their learning. Students take their prior knowledge and apply this knowledge to a new experience. This gives students a better understanding on how learning takes place online and in a traditional classroom environment.

What do you believe is critical and non-negotiable in teaching and learning?
In this 21st century, technology is critical and non-negotiable in teaching and learning. The proper implementation and use of technologies allows teachers and students opportunities to display their creativity in learning and use of their cognitive skills.

Semple (2000) argues that there is a gap between learning, teaching, and educational technologies and what happens in our schools. She states that teachers teach through their own perceptions which are teacher-centered strategies and not student-centered methods. Kinnaman (1995) reveals that in order to close the gap between education and school practices, we must be willing to reorganize schools by becoming more technology driven. Despite the implementation of new technologies, teachers should have a profound knowledge of the various learning theories, an understanding of his/her students, competence in using and applying educational technologies, which will create effective learning environments. For this to happen, teachers must be given opportunities to take preservice training and that schools have available on-going professional development for preparing teachers to meet the needs of our students.


Driscoll, M. (2005).  Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Semple, A. (2000, September).  Learning theories and their influence on the development and use of educational technologies, Australian Science Teachers Journal, 46(3), 21-29.   


Module 6:  Learning in a Digital World

I responded to the following community members:

Temeka Shingles

Karen Wondergem

Sunday, February 12, 2012

Module 5 Blog Post: New Technologies

Module 5 – Blog Post Discussion

Briefly describe a situation in which you have encouraged people to use a new technology and have been met with resistance or disappointing results. What attitudes did these people exhibit? What behaviors did they demonstrate?

When I started my teaching career in 1994, computers were prevalent. However, the majority of teachers at this school did not want to change their way of getting their work finish. The use of computer meant that they had to replace the use of an electronic typewriter. Most faculty members felt that the electronic typewriter is the effective and efficient way of completing all required assignments, reports, and lesson plans and that trying to replace the electronic typewriter with a computer would create chaos. To eliminate some resistance from staff and the faculty, I would conduct training sessions for everyone. Many of the staff and faculty were ready for acceptance of using the computer instead of the electronic typewriter; however, there are still some individuals who reject the use of computers in their educational environment.

Using Keller’s ARCS model, describe how you could change the motivation of these people, or learners, to encourage success. 
In order to change the motivation of these people, or learners for encouraging success, I would first display a short video on the purpose and ease of using computers and how computers can benefit students learning as well as their learning. After the video, I would pose questions for participants for brainstorming and grouped discussions. The questions would be based on the participants incorporating their past and current skills and knowledge and how connected computers are in what they need to accomplish daily. More experienced users will work with those individuals who continue to resist the use of computers. This will increase their confidence and act as a support system in order to achieve success. Feedback is ongoing for each participant in order to monitor their progress and success. In using Keller’s (1984) ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satifaction), I must keep in mind that motivation comes from within and that the use of any new technology requires introducing to learners a small portion at a time and making that innovation work for them.

Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson Education, Inc.


Module 5:  New Technologies

I responded to the following community members:

Sandra Dykes

Wednesday, January 25, 2012


Module 4:  Connectivism Mindmap

Reflect on how your connections facilitate learning?

I learn through the use of new and old digital technologies.  For instance, wikis and blogs have similar features.  When I use a blog, there is no need to learn the standard features because I have demonstrated the ability to use these features in creating wikis.  Siemens (2006) emphasizes that new knowledge is continually acquired.  Drawing distinctions between important and unimportant knowledge is vital.  My ability to recognize when new knowledge alters the landscape based on decisions made yesterday is important.  When an online or academic environments change, I make adjustments in my thinking and assumptions to ensure that my decisions are based on an accurate foundation (p. 31).    

How has your network changed the way you learn?

My network has not changed the way I learn.  It has changed the way I access and acquire information using available sources through the Internet.  Through the use of podcasts, blogs, and wikis, I have the ability to create, share, and receive information, and select the appropriate technologies for completing these functions.  

Which digital tools best facilitate learning for you?

Digital tools that best facilitate my learning are:

     ·         Wikis

     ·         Skype

      ·         Blogs

      ·         Iphones

All of these digital tools allow me to access information anytime and anywhere.  I have access to using or incorporating the basic functions such as save, retrieve, copy, share, and involve other learners.  When using these tools, collaboration becomes a vital function for enhancing your knowledge and experiences.   

How do you learn new knowledge when you have questions?

When I have questions, I use Google and other search engines on the Internet in order to research appropriate and reliable sources.  At Walden University, I post questions in the classroom’s cafĂ©, through emails or the discussions area. Accretion learning is the constant activity of our work and life.  Siemens (2006) emphasizes that the acquisition domain of learning is exploratory and inquiry-based.  The learner is in control of defining the needed knowledge, and actively enters the process in order to assuage personal motivations and interests (p.35).  The author suggests that the fourth domain, accretion learning is continuous. During the accretion domain, the learner quests for knowledge when and where it is needed.  He reveals that we gain experience through reflection on workshop or an article.  Siemens concluded that we connect and bring together numerous elements and activities, constantly shaping and creating our understanding and knowledge (p.35). 

Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-13. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Education Research Complete database.

Siemens, G. (2006). Knowing Knowledge. Copyright 2006 by George Siemens. Used by permission.

Michele Baylor

Module 4:  Connectivism

I responded to the following community members:

Toni Toney

Cheryl Carroll

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Module 3: Collaboration

Module 3 - Blog Post Discussion

Rheingold (2008) stresses that the collaboration among people as been in existing during the agricultural civilization.  His theory on collaboration correlates to Toffler’s Wave Theory.   Thornburg (2008) indicates that Toffler’s Wave Theory consists of the following:
Agricultural Age – Wave 1
·         Extended family
·         Tied to the farm land
·         Survival
·         Own small land
·         Less mobility
Industrial Age – Wave 2
·         Shift to nuclear family
·         Respond to factory model
·         Stayed in same locale
Information Age – Wave 3

·         Single family
·         Blended family
·         Children of divorced
·         Two paycheck family
·         Flexible working hours
Communication Age – Wave 4

·         Paradigm shift
·         Internet use
·         Ability to collaborate and communicate with others using technology.
Rheingold (2008) stresses that the collaboration among people has been in existing during the agricultural civilization. His theory on collaboration correlates to Toffler’s Wave Theory.

Based on the circumstance, humans have a basic instinct to “interact and work as a group.” For example, a group of individuals get shipwrecked on an island; the norm is to work as a group and make use of each other talents and skills for survival. If teachers implement technology effectively and efficiently, learners will begin to understand the benefits of working collaboratively in an online throughout the world. According to Koschmann (1994), computers and their related technologies can facilitate, augment, and even redefine interactions among member of a working group,” (p. 219). Driscoll (2005) reveals that collaborative technologies are now finding their way into instruction to support learning of students engaged in a learning task as members of a group. An important advantage of collaborative technologies that are web-based is that they can provide scaffolding (Hannafin et al., 1997) in the form of virtual access to knowledge experts and online support to make thinking visible. Students will then have the opportunity to identify learning goals, conduct investigations, keep track of their progress, think about their ideas and others, and communicate to others within and outside the actual learning community (Driscoll, 2005).

This is a current research study that has been conducted in the last 5 years that supports collaboration as an effective tool for learning:

Glenn, M.  (2008, October).  The future of higher education:  how technology will shape learning.  Economist Intelligence Unit report, sponsored by the New Media Consortium, 1-17. Retrieved from

Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Thornburg, D. (2008).  Educational technology:  The next wave:  Part 1. (Vodcast).  Laureate Education Inc.  Retrieved from

Rheingold, H. (2008, February).  Howard Rheingold on collaboration [Video file].  Retrieved from

Michele Baylor 

Module 3:  Collaboration

I responded to the following community members:

Nadine Petrie-Waymyers

Temeka Shingles


Friday, December 30, 2011

Module 2: Cognitivism as a Learning Theory

Module 2 - Blog Post Discussion 

Conversations in blogs about cognitivism and learning theories in general are abundant. The two conversations linked below are examples of fascinating discussions in 2007 on cognitivism and behaviorism among three important thinkers: Bill Kerr, Stephen Downes, and Karl Kapp. While the discussions are several years old, the issues and questions they raise are still relevant today. Read these two blog posts, and then form a response to post in your own blog. Be sure to link to these posts in your blog and add tags for “learning theory” and “cognitivism,” along with any other topics you explore.

My Response:

As I read about cognitivism and learning theories on both blogs, the three theorists address cogent points. Downes indicates that humans are like computers. Machines do a variety of math such as algebra and chess. For instance, Downes states that if machines continue to evolve by displaying visceral emotions. At this point, behaviorism could regain it place in society (Downes, p. 3). These are convincing arguments, but we must remember that humans construct computers and that we are responsible for how computers think and learn. The more we perfect them the less there are jobs available for individuals.

Kerr argues that the essence of good educational design is when you take a portion from each theory. For example, students are very culturally diverse with different learning styles. In this 21st century advanced technological society, we should meet the students where they are and not where we want them to be. Kapp indicates that using the technological resources in assisting students to move forward in life and in their learning. I agree with Kerr and Kapp that we must continue to take a part of each theory that works best for students in order to create educational experiences. Kapp emphasizes that creating learning uses an entire tool kit of philosophies, techniques and ideas. Kapp suggests that some ideas are better than others and that we should not generalize because we are all different individuals.
Kerr concludes by stating that learning theory, like politics, is full of _isms: constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism, and connectivism. He believes that _isms are important and that we should use them as a filter and not as a blinker. Kerr suggests that in order to have a tremendous change, we must have a theory to justify it and help us think about it. Downes argues that he depicts cognitivism as a response to behaviorism and a philosophy of learning. For instance, the learner is a complex information-processing system and to understand how learning occurs, one must understand how information processing occurs within the human brain…in the cognivitist’s view, learning occurs internally and through the social interactions with others.

As an instructional designer, it is important to consider the _isms in order to accommodate all the various learning styles and individuals. I agree with Kerr’s comments that each _ism has a place in education and that it is entirely up to instructional designers to take a portion of each _ism and apply it to each instructional design. For example, Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning incorporates from a cognitive perspective by taking chunks of information and breaking it down into smaller pieces. To design a lesson using the behaviorist approach is to break down into smaller steps in order to shape the learner’s behavior. No matter what theory we use or if we use a combination of philosophies, the best instructional design has each of this school of thought for creating multiple learning styles, meeting the needs of all learners’ abilities, and creating challenges for engaging and motivating all students.


Kerr, B. (2007, January 1). _isms as filter, not blinker [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Kapp, K. (2007, January 2). Out and about: Discussion on educational schools of thought [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Michele Baylor

Module 2:  Cognitivism as a Learning Theory
I responded to the following community members:
Fred Davis 
Debbie Morris

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

EDUC8845:  Learning Theory and Educational Theory

Hello Community Members!!!

Allow me to introduce myself again! I am Michele N. Baylor and we currently enrolled in the Learning Theory and Educational Theory class this quarter. I believe that some of the purposes of our collaborative grouping are a) to reflect upon our weekly readings, b) to allow our voices to be heard through our writings and verbal communication skills, and to build an effective networking community of scholarly learners and practitioners. This is my second class that is using a blog as a learning instrument. I believe that together we can share in a rewarding and challenging experience in this class.

Question 1:  What are your beliefs about how people learn best? What is the purpose of learning theory in educational technology?
My philosophy of learning is that people learn by trial and error, and by modeling and using a guided approach to learning.  Individuals have the ability to use their prior knowledge in any situation or learning environment.  The purpose of learning theory in educational technology is to seek and understand the different learning styles of individuals and how each individuals use technology in education.  The learning theory in educational technology correlates to Rogers’ (1995) diffusion process.  Rogers defines diffusion as the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.  The innovation-decision process is the “process through which an individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to the formation of an attitude toward the innovation, to a decision to adopt or reject, to implementation and use of the new ideas, and to confirmation of this decision.” 

Question 2:  What are the critical elements of a learning theory? Did Driscoll and Siemens miss any key questions or criteria? Provide a thoughtful critique of their discussion of learning theory.

Driscoll (2000, pp. 14-17) classifies learning into three epistemological frameworks:

·         Objectivism – reality is external and objective, and that knowledge is gained through experiences.

·         Pragmatism – reality is provisional, and knowledge is negotiated through experience and thinking.

·         Interpretivism – reality is internal, and knowledge is constructed.
These three epistemological frameworks provide a foundation for three theories of learning:

·         Behaviorism – when we do not know what occurs inside the learner, focuses its efforts on managing external, observable behaviors, and finds much of its existence in objectivism.

·         Cognitivism – a continuum from learning as information processing (a computer model) at one end, to learning as reasoning and thinking on the other, finds much of its identity in pragmatism.

·         Constructivism – learning involves each individual learner making sense and constructing knowledge within his or her own context; it finds its foundation in interpretivism.
Downes (2006) describes a fourth epistemological framework as the view of knowledge as composed of connections and networked entitles.  Siemens (2006) reveals that knowledge is distributed across networks and the act of learning is a diverse network of connections and recognizing attendant patterns.

Question 3:  Critique Siemens’s “metaphors of educators.” Which of these metaphors best describes the role you believe an instructor should take in a digital classroom or workplace? Is there a better metaphor to reflect your view of the role of instructors?

As I was reviewing the “metaphors of educators:” master artist, network administrator, concierge, and curator, I could relate to each metaphor.  The role an instructor should take in a digital classroom or workplace to take into consideration the following:

      ·         How do students learn?

·         Consider all of the knowledge and learning styles of his/her students?

      ·         The available resources and technological aspect of the class.

·         The objectives, goals, and expectations of the class.

In this 21st century digital age, I would recommend that an instructor seek all four metaphors and combine them into one. This will give more students an opportunity to become more independent learners and to enhance their critical thinking and writing skills.  

Siemens (2008) explains “metaphors of educators” thoroughly; however, there remains the challenge of today’s educational systems meeting the demands of global completion.  I   

Rogers, E. M. (2003).  Diffusion of innovations (5th ed). New York:  Free Press

Siemens, G. (2008, January 27). Learning and knowing in networks: Changing roles for educators and designers. Paper presented to ITFORUM. Retrieved from

 Michele Baylor

Module 1:  Learning Theory and Educational Technology

I responded to the following community members:

Alison Parker -

Saturday, November 20, 2010

The Development of Critical Thinking Skills in Distance Education

Hello Community Members and Dr. Powley,

Thank you for your patience and support regarding some unexcepted circumstances last week and this week. I have embeded my video below for your comments and recommendations. Again,thank you.

Michele Baylor